Abstract Critical limb ischemia is the most serious form of peripheral artery disease, characterized by severe functional consequences, difficult clinical management and reduced life expectancy. The goal of this study was to investigate the miR-210 role in the neo-angiogenic response after acute limb ischemia. Complementary approaches were used in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia: miR-210 loss-of-function was obtained by administration of LNA-oligonucleotides anti-miR-210; for miR-210 gain-of-function, a doxycycline-inducible miR-210 transgenic mouse was used. We tested miR-210 ability to stimulate vascular regeneration following ischemia. We found that miR-210 was necessary and sufficient to stimulate blood perfusion recovery, as well as arteriolar and capillary density increase, in the ischemic muscle. To clarify the molecular events underpinning miR-210 pro-angiogenic action, the transcriptomic changes in ischemic muscles upon miR-210 blocking were analyzed. We found that miR-210 impacted the transcriptome significantly, regulating pathways and functions linked to vascular regeneration. In agreement with a pro-angiogenic role, miR-210 also improved cardiac function and left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction. Moreover, miR-210 blocking decreased capillary density in a Matrigel plug assay, indicating that miR-210 is necessary for angiogenesis independently of ischemia. Collectively, these data indicate that miR-210 plays a pivotal role in promoting vascular regeneration.